Since its creation in 1954, CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research, headquartered in Geneva), has supported the principles of open access to scientific information. A quick "open access" keyword search in E-LIS turned up this brief document (pdf format), deposited in June, 2005, entitled "Continuing CERN Action on Open Access." Here's the abstract from E-LIS:
"Open Access (OA) is an idea that would change the publishing landscape to bring benefits to all readers and authors. New publishing models based on electronic dissemination and OA are emerging. Active measures taken by CERN at this time could have an important impact on the wider adoption of OA principles."